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TORONTO STAR

Inside the digital dragnet that helped hunt down an alleged Canadian killer (sam., 07 déc. 2019)
VANCOUVER—Brandon Teixeira was a wanted man. Charged with first degree murder in connection with a deadly 2017 Surrey shooting, there was a warrant out for his arrest. He evaded capture for almost two years — until Sunday. Earlier this year, Teixeira became the subject of the Bolo Program, which uses targeted ads to find Canada’s most wanted fugitives. In April, bright yellow “wanted” ads with his image began appearing across B.C.’s Lower Mainland, where he was thought to be hiding out. Police say the targeted ad campaign helped generate a number of tips that may have lead to his arrest in California last week — ending an international manhunt involving police from Canada and the U.S. “I would go so far as to say we would not have gotten him without the help of the Bolo program,” said Sgt. Frank Jang, spokesperson for B.C.’s Integrated Homicide Investigation Team (IHIT). Launched in Toronto in May 2018, the Bolo or “Be On The Lookout,” program uses software to assist police agencies across Canada by determining the best way to share and “amplify” information that could help locate some of Canada’s most dangerous fugitives. In Teixeira’s case, Bolo distributed more than 15,000 flyers to liquor stores, car rental agencies and other businesses he might have frequented. They also put up billboards in locations he might have been spotted, and placed “extensive” ads on Facebook and Instagram. The ads were also distributed directly by police. During the course of their investigation, IHIT discovered that Teixeira might be using food delivery apps such as Skip the Dishes. Investigators sent the company the Bolo-designed ad via email, and the food delivery company then distributed the ad to delivery drivers across the Lower Mainland. According to Jang, the blaring neon ads generated “a lot of interest” in the case. Though the Bolo program can be helpful to police investigations, it’s not run by law enforcement — it is an initiative funded by the Montreal-based Stephan Crétier Foundation, a charity whose namesake is also the founder and CEO of GardaWorld Security Corp, a private security company. Bolo program director Max Langlois said they want to ensure people have an awareness of Canada’s most wanted and possibly dangerous suspects without intruding in their everyday lives or disrupting police operations. “Canadians are good people, and they are constantly bombarded with requests to help, donate, or do things for community,” Langlois told Star Vancouver. “We wanted to communicate that the ‘most wanted’ list was also important to think about.” There are two key parts to Bolo campaigns: Informational awareness through targeted ads, and the offering of a reward to provide incentive. The strategy of capturing the public’s attention “at the right time, the right place, using the right means” was what lead to the development of Spark, a software-based “engagement engine” built specifically for Bolo. It determines the best way to distribute targeted ads about fugitives and to make sure that information gets to the right audience, based on the location and specifics of the alleged crimes committed. Langlois said they wanted to ensure the campaigns were “naturally inset” into the daily lives of Canadians. Since the program’s launch, bright yellow “most wanted” ads, which are carefully designed to be eye-catching and memorable, have been placed on Facebook and Instagram, bus shelters, the sides of trucks and other visible areas. They provide a link to the Bolo web page, where details of the crimes fugitives are suspected of committing are listed, along with aliases, scars or identifying marks, reported sightings and other information, as well as contact details for law enforcement. The program also funds a reward: At least $50,000 for tips leading to the arrest of each person on Bolo’s current list of eight suspects. Bolo doesn’t have access to police investigations or confidential information — they can only see what police have made public in each of the “most wanted” cases. So to decide which fugitives make the list, the program relies on the help of a committee made up of fugitive investigators at law enforcement agencies across Canada. They committee makes recommendations to Bolo’s board of directors based on the level of danger the individual poses to the public, police priority, and other factors. The targeted ad strategy has already been used to try to solicit information for another of Canada’s most prominent fugitives: Akil Whyte, wanted for murder by Toronto police. He was caught this summer on Aug. 6, 2019. In a news release, the Toronto Police Service thanked the public, Crime Stoppers and the Bolo Program for their assistance. According to Langlois, it’s difficult to determine if any of the tips police received in the case were called in because of Bolo, because the program does not collect tips directly. Tips are confidential and must go through law enforcement agencies. But based on information from police departments, tips generally increase rapidly in volume once a campaign launches, which is what occurred in Whyte’s case. Jang said that’s also what happened with Teixeira. He described how “police officers and members of the public alike” began to associate the Bolo program with Teixeira’s image when his campaign launched in April 2019. Earlier this week, Langlois launched the next Bolo campaign in partnership with Metro Vancouver Crime Stoppers. This time, the target is Cong Dinh, a Burnaby man wanted on five counts of money laundering. He said that this case was much more complicated, involving crimes nearly 10 years old, but “whatever has to be done ... we’re going to do” to find Dinh. With files from The Canadian Press Cherise Seucharan is a Vancouver-based reporter covering crime and public safety. Follow her on Twitter: @CSeucharan
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He died by suicide in front of Alberta’s legislature. He said he wanted to bring attention to Medical Assistance in Dying (Sat, 07 Dec 2019)
EDMONTON—All his life Kenneth Chan cared deeply about the suffering of those closest to him — his sister who died of Multiple Sclerosis, his friend who suffered from fibromyalgia and travelled to Switzerland to access assisted death, even his beloved dog, Mark, who died of cancer. In his own final moments, Chan, 62, wanted people to know about the struggles of his loved ones, and how increased access to medical assistance in dying could help many end what may otherwise be a lifetime of suffering. A military veteran of 25 years who served both in Iraq and Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chan lived in Gibbons, a town northeast of the city. But on Dec. 2, he made his way into Edmonton, according to his family. It’s not clear how he chose to spend his last afternoon, until precisely 2:35 p.m., when he sent two emails. One was addressed to his employer about workplace grievances and was shared with around 40 people. The other was sent to the provincial and federal ministers of health. The subject line read: “Medical Assistance in Dying.” Chan’s stepson, Harald Linder, shared the email in hopes of honouring his final message. “I would like to use my death to bring attention to Medical Assistance in Dying, MAID,” the first line of the email read. Around thirty minutes later, shortly after 3 p.m., Chan died by suicide on the front steps of the Alberta legislature due to a self-inflicted gunshot wound. For Linder, the timing of his stepfather’s death is no coincidence. At around the same time, inside the legislature, United Conservative MLA Dan Williams had just stood to defend a bill he tabled in early November — Bill 207, also known as the Conscience Rights for Health Care Providers Protections Act. It looks to enshrine conscience rights for medical professionals who refuse care to patients based on moral or religious beliefs. Currently, medical health professionals can refuse to provide treatments such as abortion or medically assisted death if it conflicts with their conscience, but they must provide a referral to someone who can. Experts have said Bill 207 could remove the referral requirement. “He timed it just perfectly,” Linder said of Chan’s death taking place just as debate on the bill was about to begin. “If anyone thinks otherwise, it’s just silly.” It’s unclear whether debate on Bill 207 will continue, as the legislature’s fall session ended earlier this week. If the legislature is prorogued, the bill will not be debated at all and will fall off the government’s agenda. If not, it would be debated at the next opportunity for private member’s business, sometime in the new year. Linder couldn’t recall Chan talking about the issue of medical assistance in dying much prior to his death, save for one general conversation he had with some family members about the procedure a few months back. But in his letter to the ministers of health, Chan wrote about the importance of having access to assisted death, and of having to say goodbye to his sister, Janet, after she was diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis. The disease had spread and deteriorated her body and mind, he said in the letter. “We had gone to visit her at a palliative care facility in Toronto,” Chan wrote. “She did not know who we were. She passed away in a very lonely world.” Chan also mentioned a close family friend in her 30s who asked for medical assistance in dying in the early 2000s, after surviving a horrific car accident and an ongoing struggle with fibromyalgia. The woman, Chan said in his letter, had to travel to Switzerland to receive MAID. It struck Linder how the woman’s suffering had remained in Chan’s mind after all this time. Chan wrote about how he became hopeful when MAID became law in Canada in June 2016. However, he added that he realized MAID comes with restrictions: On the time a patient has to make the decision, the medical conditions that qualify and the requirement that patients who request a medically assisted death must do so while of sound mind. “I know change is slow, I know it will change. I know I cannot change anything,” Chan wrote. “What I would like to do is plant a seed in your head.” Staff at Minister of Health Tyler Shandro’s office acknowledged that they had received Chan’s email. However, Shandro’s spokesperson Steve Buick said the minister didn’t see it at the time it was sent. And despite medically assisted death being an issue that is largely under federal jurisdiction, Buick said the minister wished he would’ve been able to reply. “Every suicide is somebody we didn’t reach in time,” Buick said. MLA Williams also offered his condolences to Chan’s family. “I would encourage anyone contemplating self-harm to reach out and seek help,” he said. Mental health experts say it’s often tricky to pinpoint a singular cause for a person’s suicide. Linder, however, said raising awareness about medical assistance in dying was clearly the final message his stepfather wanted to send before his death. He described his stepfather as quiet, kind and helpful — the kind of person who would pull up on the side of the road to change a stranger’s tire, rain or shine. Chan came into Linder’s life about two decades ago, when he married Linder’s mother after meeting the family in Petawawa where he was stationed in the town’s military base. Linder said Chan, known to the family as Ken, immediately became a fixture in his life, shining a bright light on the family. “It was a blessing for my mom to have this nice man in her life that loves, and likes to enjoy life — the simple things like nature.” Linder said his stepfather didn’t speak much about his mental health struggles. He added Chan had likely seen and experienced things during his time in the military that people in everyday society don’t get to see, but asking for help wasn’t the norm. “There’s a certain mentality that’s structured inside a person,” said Linder, who grew up in Petawawa. “You have to stay tough.” Linder said he struggles with PTSD and depression, and talking about it through the years didn’t always come naturally. “It’s not easy to stay tough all the time, it feels like you’re sucking your gut for so long,” Linder said. He added he’s become increasingly cognizant of this since his stepfather’s death. Linder said the family will be honouring Chan’s life on Saturday in Edmonton. Through his grief, Linder said it’s important to remind people to reach out for help. “Love yourself as much as you’re able to, also others around you.” If you are considering suicide, there is help. Find a list of local crisis centres at the Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention, call 911 or in Alberta, call Health Link at 811 or the Mental Health Help Line at 1-877-303-2642, available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Nadine Yousif is an Edmonton-based reporter primarily covering provincial affairs. Follow her on Twitter: @nadineyousif_
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Now the longest serving professional athlete in Toronto, Kyle Lowry has found a place to call home (Sun, 08 Dec 2019)
PHILADELPHIA—It takes a few seconds for Kyle Lowy to digest the information when it’s mentioned him in a quiet moment in the Raptors locker room. He’s getting dressed after his 507th regular season Raptors game and he has been told he is the longest-serving professional athlete in Toronto, with more time with the Raptors than Morgan Rielly has spent with the Maple Leafs or Jonathan Osorio with TFC or, well, anybody with the Blue Jays. “That’s pretty bizarre,” he says. Whether that’s an indictment of the other Toronto franchises or a testament to Lowry’s abilities or just a sign of the peripatetic life of professional athletes is hard to say. It’s probably a little bit of all three things. But for whatever the underlying reason might be, Lowry’s longevity in Toronto is impressive, especially given that he figured he’d be in the city and country for a short time. “I thought I was going to be here for a year, two years, and be long gone,” the 33-year-old, six-foot guard said. “Come up here for business and that’s about it but, at the end of the day, I think the perseverance and the work I’ve put in and the belief the organization has in me means something.” Lowry is not a particularly warm and fuzzy guy who’ll publicly profess undying love for anything other than his family, the city (Philadelphia) where he was born and raised, his NFL Eagles and Villanova University. And maybe that’s why he doesn’t get all the adulation that is due him for what he has accomplished in the city and the impact he’s had on the franchise. He joked this week about the social media chatter that suggested maybe he came back too soon from a broken thumb in light of two consecutive losses at home, and that he is still a bit of a contrarian so there are factions of the media that don’t sing his praises all the time. “People talk, you deal with it and keep doing your job,” he said. “At the end of the day, it don’t really matter to me because as long as my wife and kids and my family are happy, we’re all happy.” But he has a sense of belonging in Toronto that means a lot to him. He owns a year-round residence in the city and he does outside-the-spotlight things just because. He might never say “I am Toronto” but that’s truer than you might think. “We made it home. We’ve got a home here — I’m here September to June — so it’s been home,” he said. “I’ve enjoyed it, I’ve come to really understand it, take the good with the bad.” There has been far more good than bad with Lowry and the Raptors. No matter what anyone feels or thinks about him or how he’ll eventually be remembered, he has presided over the greatest era in franchise history. Since got here — in a July 2012 trade with Houston that cost the Raptors a journeyman in Gary Forbes and a draft pick that ended up with Oklahoma City (Steven Adams) — the Raptors have been one of the consistently good-to-great franchises in the league. Lowry has been the one constant in a run that has included last June’s NBA championship, another appearance in an Eastern Conference final, a 370-225 regular-season record going into Sunday’s game and six straight playoff appearances. He has re-signed with the Raptors twice when free agency was a possibility, and he was rewarded for his service and his sparkling play with a one-year contract extension worth $31 million (U.S.) in October. How long he stays remains a question, like it is with every athlete in every sport. As a proven winner with a championship pedigree, he may be a valuable trade chip for president Masai Ujiri and general manager Bobby Webster to play next spring or even next summer and then the title of “Longest Serving Toronto Athlete” will be passed to someone else. For now, though, it’s the guy who thought he’d blow in and out of town with barely a ripple. “They’ve rewarded me and for the most part, the city has showed me unbelievable love and that’s why I give back as much as I can,” he said. “I give back with my Holiday Assist (Christmas program), my (Thanksgiving) turkey drive. I want to do as much as I can. “It’s home.” Doug Smith is a sports reporter based in Toronto. Follow him on Twitter: @smithraps
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Jury convicts Toronto brothers of murdering innocent teen in 2015 (Sat, 07 Dec 2019)
A jury has convicted two Toronto brothers of second-degree murder for randomly ambushing and killing 17-year-old Trevor Seraphine, whose horrifying final moments were captured by an apartment lobby surveillance camera. Jurors retired late Thursday afternoon to begin deliberations in the trial of Corey Murray, 34, and Curtis Murray, 30. They returned to the court just after 1 p.m. Saturday with the verdicts. During the trial, jurors were shown surveillance video of two men shooting and stabbing Seraphine in the lobby of 44 Willowridge Rd. a highrise complex near Martin Grove Road and Eglinton Ave. W. in the early hours of March 21, 2015. The central issue at trial was the identity of the assailants. The Crown’s theory was that Curtis was the gunman who fired six shots at Seraphine, one of which hit him, and that Corey was the assailant who stabbed him in the back and chest. The siblings had a motive, the prosecutors argued, but their victim was randomly targeted because of where the Murrays encountered him. The Crown said the Murrays went to Willowridge, armed and disguised, to take the life of someone connected to that building in order to avenge the actions of another man, Raushan Champagnie, and his associates. The jury heard about an escalating series of confrontations between the brothers and the “Champagnie group,” as they were described during the trial. Curtis’s girlfriend testified Champagnie accosted Curtis at a nearby plaza in the early evening of March 18. According to her evidence, there was no known reason for the conflict nor any prior association between the men, nor did any of them have a connection to Seraphine, who went to Willowridge early that morning to visit a friend. What allegedly pushed the Murrays over edge was a break-in at Curtis Murray’s apartment, in the nearby housing complex at 7 Richgrove Dr., on the night of March 19. Video footage showed Champagnie and two other men removing Curtis’s clothing and coveted footwear, and transporting the items to Willowridge, where the items were sold at an advertised “Block Friday Sale” the next day. The case lasted weeks longer than expected due to lost video surveillance footage defence lawyers discovered midtrial. Superior Court Justice Anne Molloy found police neglected to preserve the “potentially relevant” footage, though she ruled it was not done deliberately. She told jurors it was up to them to determine the impact, if any, of the lost evidence. Video surveillance was key to the prosecution case. “The whole of the video evidence, standing alone,” was sufficient for jurors to establish the guilt of Curtis and Corey Murray, prosecutor Michael Wilson argued in his closing address. It “presents as the perfect witness, it’s not going to suffer memory loss” or have an interest in the outcome of the proceedings, he said. A lobby camera also recorded the teen’s final moments. Wilson and co-counsel Michael Coristine argued exterior footage tracked the movements of a light-coloured, four-door sedan carrying the Murrays that evening and travelling between the two housing complexes. “This is a vehicle searching,” for members of the Champagnie group, Wilson said, as the jury watched blurry images of a slow-moving car with a slanted hood and distinctive tail lights. The jury also saw footage of the brothers in the lobby at Willowridge, less than an hour before the ambush, that captured Curtis removing a “Block Friday Sale” flyer taped to the door. The last sequence showed a vehicle driving from Richgrove, where the brothers allegedly put on disguises and armed themselves before returning to Willowridge on their murderous mission, Wilson said. The brothers stood trial on charges of first-degree murder, which requires planning and deliberation. But Molloy told the jurors that if they believed the brothers were the killers, there were a number of ways they could also find them guilty of second-degree murder. “If you are satisfied beyond a reasonable doubt that there was planning and deliberation to kill one of the men involved in the various hostile actions against Curtis Murray, and Trevor Seraphine was killed, that would be second degree murder,” she instructed the jury before releasing them Thursday. Also, if the jury decided the brothers killed Seraphine impulsively, or had a reasonable doubt as to the existence of planning or deliberation, that would be second-degree murder. Second-degree murder, like first degree, carries an automatic sentence of life in prison. But while first-degree murder has a parole ineligibility period of 25 years, those convicted of second-degree murder can be eligible for parole in as few as 10 years. On Saturday, the jurors recommended the brothers serve 25 years before becoming eligible to apply for parole. Defence lawyers Sid Freeman, representing Curtis, and Adam Boni, counsel for Corey, argued the exterior footage of the suspect car was poor and incapable of establishing the pair’s whereabouts. The prosecutors also told jurors the surveillance video allowed them to identify the shoes and clothing worn by the attackers as items similar to attire worn by the Murray brothers, again disputed by the defence lawyers. A lot of court time was devoted to testimony about footwear. The prosecutors alleged the shoes worn by the gunman were Curtis’s Nike Kobe 8 basketball shoes, described as “blitz blue” with an orange swoosh. The Crown called a Nike Inc. employee, who testified the shoe was released as a limited edition in Canada in 2013 and that 442 pairs were sold here, while acknowledging many more were also sold in the U.S. and online. The Crown also alleged the shoes worn by the perpetrator with the knife were Nike Air Max 90s and that Corey Murray owned a pair. The Nike employee also provided details of those “limited edition” shoes with a distinctive red and black patterned sole. Nine hundred and twelve pairs were sold in Canada after they were introduced in the 2014 Christmas holiday season, jurors heard. Neither brother testified. Freeman, who represented Curtis, told the jury there was no reliable evidence backing up the Crown’s theory that he committed any retaliatory acts. There were no forensics, fingerprints, eyewitnesses, DNA or cellphone records placing him at the scene in what she told the jury was an entirely circumstantial case. She suggested the police and prosecution discovered the “unrelated issue” of the Champagnie crew’s beef with the brothers and adopted that as the motive behind the Seraphine murder. It also made no sense, Freeman said, asking why they would target an innocent person at 44 Willowridge when all of the bullying incidents — except for Champagnie accosting Curtis at a nearby plaza — had occurred at 7 Richgrove. Several times, Freeman also asked the jury to reject the Crown’s “angry, young Black man motive.” She noted that at the time of the murder, Curtis was in physiotherapy for a back injury, which ruled him out as the shooter who ran away easily after taking a hard fall when he slipped on the wet grass. Boni said the Crown’s case against Corey was extremely weak, and that its suggested motive — that Corey lashed out in a murderous rage against a stranger to avenge the theft and sale of his brother’s running shoes and clothes by people with no connection to the victim — was unsupported by the evidence. The defence lawyer urged the jury to be wary of relying on any evidence that could not be corroborated because of the lost video, and said that the exterior footage did not put Corey inside the vehicle. Betsy Powell is a Toronto-based reporter covering crime and courts. Follow her on Twitter: @powellbetsy
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Documents reveal OPP’s powerful cellphone spy tech. Why does it no longer use it? (Sat, 07 Dec 2019)
The Ontario Provincial Police acquired “Stingray” cellphone surveillance technology with the power to intercept private communications, according to documents obtained by the Star — a device with significantly more invasive capabilities than any other Canadian police force is known to have. The OPP obtained the hardware five years ago. But a spokesperson says the force switched to equipment “not capable” of intercepting private communications in 2017. The force did not respond to questions about why it switched, or what happened to the previous device or devices, for which it ultimately paid more than $2 million. The technology, known by a variety of names including IMSI catchers, Cell Site Simulators and Stingrays, mimics a cellphone tower, forcing nearby mobile devices to connect and collecting information from them. Other law enforcement agencies, including the RCMP and Toronto Police, have explicitly said their IMSI catchers do not have the capability of intercepting private communications, such as calls, text messages, and emails. Instead, they collect identifying data, including an International Mobile Subscriber Number (IMSI) and other unique numbers that, with a warrant, can be linked to a suspect’s name and address. This function is also controversial, however, because the devices can sweep up identifying data on thousands of bystanders in addition to targeted suspects. The OPP’s IMSI catcher technology appears to have had the capability of intercepting the private communications of a single, targeted device. But the force would not answer many questions about how it was used, including what type of private communications it captured, how many times this capability was deployed, or how often it had loaned the capability to other forces. “Revealing specifics could jeopardize investigations, ongoing court proceedings and impact public and officer safety,” spokesperson Carolle Dionne responded. “Police services worldwide — including the OPP — recognize the need to build or enhance their capacity to conduct modern criminal investigations involving digital technologies, communications tools and information/data storage.” Critics say more transparency is necessary. “When it comes to surveillance tools, there needs to be a social licence for the use of them: the public needs to understand what’s being used, what the capacity is, and what accountability structures are in place to ensure that they’re used reasonably, proportionately, and fairly,” says Brenda McPhail, director of the privacy, technology and surveillance project at the Canadian Civil Liberties Association. “If we don’t even know that the tools with that capacity are in use in our jurisdictions, we can’t possibly ask or be given the right level of public accountability about whether or not they are being used in ways that we as a society believe are appropriate.” The Star filed an access to information request for records related to the OPP’s IMSI catchers in January 2016. The provincial ministry responsible for law enforcement first refused to confirm or deny it had any such records, and later refused to release the records on multiple grounds, including that doing so would reveal investigative techniques currently or likely to be used, rendering those techniques ineffective. The Star argued that the public should be given enough information about this technology to properly weigh the tradeoff between privacy and security. After a years-long appeal process, the Ontario Information and Privacy Commissioner’s office (IPC) ruled last month that some documents related to the OPP’s acquisition and use of these devices must be released to the Star. Significant parts of the documents were redacted, upholding the ministry’s concerns about revealing investigative techniques. The documents include contracts, purchase orders and a 2014 deployment protocol. The protocol is almost totally redacted except for a cover page and four sentences broadly describing the device’s capabilities. The protocol shows that the OPP’s IMSI catcher could detect a cellular device’s identifying characteristics, deny cellular service to a specific device while not affecting others in the area, locate and track a device, and intercept “the private communications originated by and received by a specific cellular device.” Sherry Liang, IPC assistant commissioner of tribunal services, ruled this information should be disclosed because it simply describes general functionalities corresponding to publicly available information about these devices. Liang ruled that two more pages containing information that “would reveal more than the public already knows” about the capabilities of these devices should not be released. Some IMSI catchers can not only intercept calls and texts but edit and reroute them, and can remotely activate a cellphone’s microphone. The OPP did not answer when asked whether its device had these capabilities. The ministry also sought to prevent the release of these documents because it would prejudice a long-term, ongoing relationship between the OPP and another governmental organization. The organization’s name is redacted. In 2017, the RCMP gave an unprecedented media briefing in which it revealed it owned 10 IMSI catchers. It gave investigators from the Privacy Commissioner of Canada access to the devices to confirm that they were not capable of intercepting private communications. The RCMP always seeks judicial authorization to use these devices, except in exceptional and urgent circumstances, like kidnappings. Asked whether the RCMP collaborated on investigations with the OPP or other police forces that own IMSI catchers capable of intercepting private communications, spokesperson Caroline Duval said “The RCMP does not report on investigations that are ongoing, or investigations that are led by other agencies or departments.” The Star revealed in March that Toronto Police recently acquired an IMSI catcher. Prior to that it had used the technology in at least five separate investigations; in three of them, it relied on the RCMP’s devices. Toronto Police spokesperson Meaghan Gray said that “TPS has not used an IMSI [catcher] (ours or anyone else’s) for the purpose of intercepting private communications.” The OPP says its current IMSI catcher technology “is only used to collect transmission data in relation to mobile devices,” is used in major criminal investigations, and that a specific warrant related to this type of data is used to authorize its deployment. The force will not disclose the number of IMSI catchers it owns, because that information “is operational in nature.” Kate Allen is a Toronto-based reporter covering science and technology. Follow her on Twitter: @katecallen
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